This is the second part of “Your Emotional Brain on Resentment.”

Neurological Theories of Emotion

According to some neurologically based theories, emotions –in order to facilitate function, adaptation, and survival– are the embodiment of appraisal systems that are pervasive to all levels of the brain. There are countless studies showing that regions in the brain, specifically in the limbic system, are associated with each of the main emotions (the primary ones).

Anger is associated with activation of the right hippocampus, the amygdala, and both sides of the prefrontal cortex and the insular cortex. Anger is part of the well-known sympathetic fight-flight response that gets the body ready to attack. The question then is, how come resentment as a consequence of anger (and rage) is not reactive?

In contrast to anger and rage, resentment is a passive phenomenon, because of the the suppression of the affect that precedes it. As I mentioned previously, the expressive suppression of resentment (as a regulation strategy) involves reducing the expression of anger in the face as well as controlling the negative feelings experienced by the body.

That suppression brings up parasympathetic activation as the numbing factor as a way to put the brakes on the sympathetic command to fight. This double activation of the autonomic nervous system produces dissociation, which could be the explanation for the intentionalitys secret split.

Appraisal Theory of Emotions

Another interesting concept associated with the study of emotions is the concept of valence. Valence refers to the value associated with a stimulus, expressed on a continuum from pleasant to unpleasant or from attractive to aversive.

Appraisal theory favors a multifaceted view of valence, proposing that emotions emerge as a consequence of events being appraised on multiple criteria. An appraisal consists of a subjective evaluation of (real, recalled, or fictitious) events or situations (Shuman, et al. 2013), that can be processed consciously or unconsciously by different cognitive systems.

Every experience has a valence in terms of whether it has a positive or negative reaction. If you experience joy, that is connected to a type of activation in your brain with a positive valence. The more joy, the more neurons will carry that positive valence. The more times you experience joy, the stronger that positive valence circuit of neurons will become, and at some point, an automatic response to stimuli similar to the ones you experienced as joyful will be taking place.

Thats, generally speaking, how the brain learns and programs itself to react. Thats part of learning: the brain remembers whats important, whats pleasurable, and whats painful, and thus learns what to do after.

In terms of brain activity, we can assume that every time we experience resentment we are activating the limbic brain and re-experiencing the emotional charge that was already stored as an accumulation of anger. That forms a very strong circuit. This circuit is fated to be continually repeated with the activation of all the emotions involved. It means that the valence of resentment is highly negative because it involves many neurons firing up a negative response, and the act of remembering more of that valence unpleasant, undesired, hurtful– over and over again.

Adaptation Theory

According to some evolutionists, emotions evolved to play diverse adaptive roles, and to serve as biologically vital sources of information processing.

Under this lens, we can appreciate that resentment has redeeming features, as all emotions do. Resentment, as a protective mechanism, can be understood as an effective tactic to stop the autonomic nervous system from dysregulating on a permanent basis.

As I mentioned before, suppressing expression of affect is an aspect of emotion regulation. If we assume that resentment comes after anger gets activated but doesnt succeed in providing defense as the fight-flight primes us for it gets suppressed and accumulates in the form of impotence. Thus, holding a grudge can be the solution for attaining temporary safety, and to passively work on finding a way to overcome that impotence or subjugation. This strategy is effective if we compare it with trauma, which is another defense strategy.

This is how trauma develops: after traumatization, the brain reacts automatically to any stimuli that resemble the traumatic event or the cause of fear in order to make sure the person doesnt get defeated once more. The brain reexperiences the fear and the emotions felt during the traumatic situation. The impotence to fight back could resemble defeat.

During traumatization, not being able to fight back and feeling helpless activates a more extreme defense where the system goes into immobilization and collapse. If those extreme strategies cant bring the person back into resilience, trauma stays as a mental disorder.

This is how resentment stops trauma from developing: while in trauma, the persons evaluation of the situation was that of defeat; in resentment, the persons evaluation of the situation may be defeating for the time being but, internally, the system will stay in fight mode instead of collapsing in order to generate options to act-out that anger and to avoid the feeling of being subdued.

Instead of giving up and submitting –as happens in traumatization– an alternative defense will be set into action in the form of resentment so the person can stay afloat.

In that scenario, resentment would be a silent –but still adaptive– way to manifest defeat without revealing it, or better yet, without accepting defeat completely. Not accepting defeat would mean –in terms of neurobiology– avoiding a shut down of a lot of the bodys functionality in order to stay even if most of the vitality –and soul– of the person goes away, like what happens in trauma.

Primed Defense Mechanisms Theories

Priming is a nonconscious form of memory that involves a change in a person’s ability to identify, produce, or classify an action as a result of a previous encounter with that action (Schacter et al. 2004). Resentment becomes primed as habitual and it consumes enormous amounts of mental energy because of its characteristic of being pervasive, which could be more damaging than reparative. Strong habits are influenced by cues associated with past performance but are relatively unaffected by current goals.

Consuming thoughts and desire for revenge, retaliation, annihilation, vengeance, and so forth, could become the way the brain operates while idle. In extreme cases, resentment would drive the resented individuals thoughts and actions to the extreme of them actually losing themselves, and the sense of who they are or what their values are, which could lead to damaging mental disorders.

Resentful people could become ruled by their emotions, whether conscious or unconscious, which, in turn, would motivate them to commit violent and criminal acts.

The Irony of Resentment

As an irony, becoming obsessed in order to overcome subjugation may be self-subjugating. Additionally, if the goal of retaliating is never achieved, the sense of defeat that wanted to be avoided could appear at any given point, activating more extreme autonomic nervous system defenses that could culminate as trauma, or any other mental disorder like depression.

If the fear of abandonment was what propelled the acting out of the anger while abused, the resentment will propel the person into isolation and disconnection.

If oppression was the reason you repressed your voice, the acting-out of resentment could be the reason to play the game of the oppressors, giving them the arguments they need in order to continue to exercise injustice.

References

Karremans, J. C., & Smith, P. K. (2010). Having the Power to Forgive: When the Experience of Power Increases Interpersonal Forgiveness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36(8), 10101023. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167210376761

TenHouten, Warren. (2016). The emotions of powerlessness. Journal of Political Power. 9. 83-121. 10.1080/2158379X.2016.1149308.

TenHouten, Warren. (2018). From Primary Emotions to the Spectrum of Affect: An Evolutionary Neurosociology of the Emotions. 10.1007/978-3-319-68421-5_7.

Burrows AM. The facial expression musculature in primates and its evolutionary significance. Bioessays. 2008;30(3):212-225. doi:10.1002/bies.20719

Shuman, V., Sander, D., & Scherer, K. R. (2013). Levels of valence. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, Article 261. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00261

Schacter, Daniel & Dobbins, Ian & Schnyer, David. (2004). Specificity of priming: A cognitive neuroscience perspective. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5, 853-862. Nature reviews. Neuroscience. 5. 853-62. 10.1038/nrn1534.

Niedenthal, P. M., Ric, F., & Krauth-Gruber, S. (2006). Psychology of emotion: Interpersonal, experiential, and cognitive approaches (Chapter 5, Regulation of Emotions, pp. 155-194). New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Petersen, R. (2002). Understanding Ethnic Violence: Fear, Hatred, and Resentment in Twentieth-Century Eastern Europe (Cambridge Studies in Comparative Politics). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511840661