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IntroductionPanic attacks and panic disorder can be very disabling conditions for the people who suffer from them. Sometimes they can lead to avoidance of any activity or environment which has been associated with feelings of panic in the past. This can in turn lead to more severe and disabling disorders such as agoraphobia.
Panic attacks typically begin in young adulthood, but can occur at any time during an adult's life. A panic episode usually begins abruptly, without warning, and peaks in about 10 minutes. It can last anywhere from a few minutes to a half hour or longer. Panic attacks are characterized by a rapid heart beat, sweating, trembling, and a shortness of breath. Other symptoms can include chills, hot flashes, nausea, cramps, chest pain, tightness in the throad, trouble swallowing and diziness.
Women are more likely than men to have panic attacks. Many researchers believe the body's natural fight-or-flight response to danger is involved. For example, if a grizzly bear came after you, your body would react instinctively. Your heart and breathing would speed up as your body readied itself for a life-threatening situation. Many of the same reactions occur in a panic attack. No obvious stressor is present, but something trips the body's alarm system.
Treatment emphasizing a three-pronged approach is most effective in helping people overcome this disorder: education, psychotherapy and medication.
PsychotherapyEducation is usually the first factor in psychotherapy treatment of this disorder. The patient can be instructed about the body's "fight-or-flight" response and the associated physiological sensations. Learning to recognize and identify such sensations is usually an important initial step toward treatment of panic disorder. Individual psychotherapy is usually the preferred modality and its length is generally short-term, under 12 sessions. An emphasis on education, support, and the teaching of more effective coping strategies are usually the primary foci of therapy. Family therapy is usually unnecessary and inappropriate.
Therapy can also teach relaxation and imagery techniques. These can be used during a panic attack to decrease immediate physiological distress and the accompanying emotional fears. Discussion of the client's irrational fears (usually of dying, passing out, becoming embarrassed) during an attack is appropriate and often beneficial in the context of a supportive therapeutic relationship. A cognitive or rational-emotive approach in this area is best. A behavioral approach emphasizing graduated exposure to panic-inducing situations is most-often associated with related anxiety disorders, such as agoraphobia or social phobia. It may or may not be appropriate as a treatment approach, depending upon the client's specific issues.
Group therapy can often be used just as effectively to teach relaxation and related skills. Psychoeducational groups in this area are often beneficial. Biofeedback, a specific technique which allows the client to receive either audio or visual feedback about their body's physiological responses while learning relaxation skills, is also an appropriate psychotherapeutic intervention.
All relaxation skills and assignments taught in therapy session must be reinforced by daily exercises on the patient's part. This cannot be emphasized enough. If the client is unable or unwilling to complete daily homework assignments in practicing specific relaxation or imagery skills, then therapy emphasizing such skill sets will likely be unsuccessful or less successful. This pro-active approach to change (and the expectations of the therapist that the client will agree to this approach) needs to be clearly explained at the onset of therapy. Discussing these expectations clearly up-front makes the success of such techniques much greater.
MedicationsA lot of people who suffer from panic disorder can successfully be treated without resorting to the use of any medication. However, when medication is needed, the most commonly-prescribed class of drugs for panic disorders are the benzodiazepines (such as clonazepam and alprazolam) and the SSRI antidepressants. It is rarely appropriate to provide medication treatment alone, without the use of psychotherapy to help educate and change the patient's behaviors related to their association of certain physiological sensations with fear.
Phillip W. Long, M.D. notes that, "Clonazepam (Klonopin, Rivotril) and alprazolam (Xanax), are the treatment of choice in the treatment of Panic Disorder. Clonazepam and alprazolam are preferred to antidepressant drugs because of their less severe side effects." He also states that it is preferred to try the anti-anxiety agents before moving on to the antidepressants because of the increased side-effect profiles. Xanax can be addicting for individuals and should be used with care. Treatment with either clonazepam or alprazolam should be discontinued by tapering it off slowly, because of the possibility of seizures with abrupt discontinuation.
Self-HelpSelf-help methods for the treatment of this disorder are often overlooked by the medical profession because very few professionals are involved in them. Many support groups exist within communities throughout the world which are devoted to helping individuals with this disorder share their commons experiences and feelings.
Patients can be encouraged to try out new coping skills and relaxation skills with people they meet within support groups. They can be an important part of expanding the individual's skill set and develop new, healthier social relationships.
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