Bipolar Symptoms & Treatment
What is Bipolar Disorder?
Bipolar disorder, also known in some parts of the world by its older name of "manic depression," is a mental disorder that is characterized by serious and significant mood swings. A person with this condition experiences alternating "highs" (what clinicians call "mania") and "lows" (also known as depression). Both the manic and depressive periods can be brief, from just a few hours to a few days. Or the cycles can be much longer, lasting up to several weeks or even months. The periods of mania and depression vary from person to person -- many people may only experience very brief periods of these intense moods, and may not even be aware that they have the disorder.
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A manic episode is characterized by extreme happiness, extreme irritability, hyperactivity, little need for sleep and/or racing thoughts, which may lead to rapid speech. People in a manic episode feel like they can do anything, make plans to try and do all those things, and believe that nothing can stop them. A depressive episode is characterized by extreme sadness, a lack of energy or interest in things, an inability to enjoy normally pleasurable activities and feelings of helplessness and hopelessness. On average, someone with this condition may have up to three years of normal mood between episodes of mania or depression.
How is Bipolar Disorder Treated?
According to researchers at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), the exact cause of bipolar disorder is not yet known -- but it can still be effectively treated.
Like most mental disorders, this condition is readily treated with psychotherapy combined with psychiatric medications (most people benefit more quickly from combined treatment). Treatment for bipolar disorder is effective and helps most people keep a balanced mood throughout their day, most days of the month. One of the biggest challenges of treatment is helping a person find and keep a treatment routine that works best for them over the long-term. Most people with bipolar disorder benefit from medications for much of their life, but it can be a challenge to stick with the medications when all seems well years down the road.
Bipolar Disorder & the Americans with Disabilities Act
Helping Your Partner Manage Bipolar Disorder
Materials in this section are based upon academic, professional and government sources, which are listed below.
- American Psychiatric Association
National Institute of Mental Health
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
Archives of General Psychiatry
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Journal of Psychiatric Research
Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Journal of the American Medical Association
Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Last reviewed: By John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on 4 Jun 2016
Published on PsychCentral.com. All rights reserved.